The number of homologous chromosomal sets that make up a cell’s or organism’s genome.
The number of sets of homologous chromosomes in a cell’s or organism’s genome is referred to as ploidy.
The number n is assigned to each set. As a result, one chromosomal set, 1n, is classified as monoploid.
The term haploid, on the other hand, refers to gametes that have only half of the normal sets of chromosomes seen in an organism’s somatic cells.
The combination of two haploid gametes, such as female and male gametes, produces a zygote with two sets of chromosomes, keeping the parents’ original chromosomal number.
The two sets of chromosomes would be homologous, meaning that the chromosomes from the female gamete would correspond to the corresponding chromosomes from the male gamete based on morphology and gene loci linear sequence.
Diploid refers to a cell or organism with two sets of homologous chromosomes, 2n.
Polyploid refers to an organism’s genome having numerous sets of paired chromosomes. Triploid means three sets of chromosomes, whereas tetraploid means four sets of chromosomes.
A huge number of sets can be labelled with a number (for example 15-ploid for fifteen sets).