Table of Contents
Divergent Evolution Definition
The process through which interbreeding animals split into two or more evolutionary groupings is known as divergent evolution. It indicates that these species used to be connected and comparable. However, as time passed, they grew increasingly different.
What is Divergent Evolution?
Divergent evolution may also refer to the process of tracing two or more species back to their common ancestor and determining how they have diverged or diversified. Divergent evolution is one of three types of evolutionary patterns; the other two are convergent and parallel evolution. Environmental variables and predator activities have a big impact on species evolution. One of the most well-known examples of divergent evolution is Galapagos finches deviating from their descendent species.
Divergent Evolution Etymology
The phrase divergent evolution is claimed to have been coined by John Thomas Gulick, an American missionary and naturalist. Divergent is derived from the Latin divergentem, which means “to travel in several ways.” Evolution is derived from the Latin evolutionem, which is derived from the verb evolvere, which means “to unroll.”
Divergent Evolution vs Convergent Evolution
Divergent evolution is a form of evolution in which a species gradually becomes more distinct from its forebears. Unrelated groups of animals acquire comparable structures despite their evolutionary predecessors being very distant or unrelated, which contrasts with convergent evolution.
Analogous structures are biological structures that perform comparable functions but differ in development and anatomical features. Divergent evolution occurs when species with a common ancestor develop comparable anatomical features (called homologous structures) but different roles. Migration is one probable source of diverse evolution. When a species migrates to a new habitat, it is exposed to new environmental circumstances, and, as a result, it is more likely to acquire unique characteristics that help it adapt to its new environment. One example is the development of the so-called Darwin finches.
Environmental pressure is the primary driving force behind convergent evolution. Species evolve characteristics that make them adapt to their particular environments, even if they are unrelated. Insect, bird, and bat wings are examples of this.
Divergent Evolution vs Parallel Evolution
While species in divergent evolution basically diverge and merge, species in parallel evolution tend to evolve structures in tandem with other species in the same environment. Parallel evolution evolved features in animals that were not evolutionarily linked, similar to convergent evolution.
The distinction is that unrelated species acquired a comparable mechanism to adapt to the same environmental circumstances in parallel evolution. Unrelated species do not always dwell in the same habitat in convergent evolution.
Parallel evolution differs from divergent evolution in the same manner that convergent evolution differs from divergent evolution. Species from several evolutionary lineages have been linked to both parallel and convergent evolution. Divergent evolution refers to the evolution of a species away from its origins.
Divergent Evolution vs Adaptive Radiation
Adaptive radiation is the process through which numerous new species emerge from a recent ancestral source. Each of these species has evolved to take advantage of or occupy an open adaptation zone. As a result, this zone provides an ecological chance for some groups of species to diversify into new forms, frequently quickly. Adaptive radiation, like divergent evolution, leads to speciation, as Darwin’s Galapagos finches demonstrate.
Adaptive radiation, on the other hand, is concerned with small-scale evolution during a shorter period of time, whereas divergent evolution examines the development of species diverging from their progenitors over a longer period of time. Adaptive radiation, on the other hand, may result in divergent evolution over time as the species becomes increasingly different from its predecessors.
Importance of Divergent Evolution
Homologous structures are features that indicate a species is diverging from its origin in divergent evolution. These structures do not have to serve the same purpose as those of the species’ forefathers. Human and bat forelimbs, for example, are both homologous structures. Although they are utilised in different ways, they have the same fundamental skeletal structure and are derived from the same embryonic source. Their resemblance in this area might suggest that they evolved from a common ancestor.
This demonstrates how diverse evolution permits species with similar ancestral origins to adapt to their respective environments. As a result, since they acquire characteristics that make them precisely adapted to their environment and biological niche, it is likely to reduce competition among individuals. Divergent evolution is also beneficial to biodiversity. Because it leads to speciation, it has the potential to result in a varied spectrum of creatures flourishing in a variety of environments.
Divergent Evolution Examples
Finches in the Galapagos Islands are an excellent illustration of divergent evolution. The finches separated from their descendent species, according to Charles Darwin’s Beagle trip. While the birds share many characteristics with their forefathers, they finally evolved structures that set them apart from their progeny morphologically.
For example, they created beaks with a variety of shapes and sizes to better adapt to their food.
• The higher the structural differences, the wider the range of species divergence. Here are some more examples of divergent evolution:
• A swarm of newborns is moving to a new island. This group gets increasingly adapted over time as new traits emerge to help them survive in their new environment. As a result, they have become a distinct species from their forefathers, and what was previously a single species has split into two.
• Orchid species have developed different characteristics, resulting in an orchid variety (e.g. floral types).
• About 40 million years ago, peccaries (Tayasuidae) split from real pigs (Suidae).
• Humans and apes descended from a shared primate ancestor.
Divergent Evolution Citations
- Divergent Evolution of Mutation Rates and Biases in the Long-Term Evolution Experiment with Escherichia coli. Genome Biol Evol . 2020 Sep 1;12(9):1591-1603.
- Divergent Uses of “Parallel Evolution” during the History of The American Naturalist. Am Nat . 2019 Jan;193(1):11-19.
- New genes from old: asymmetric divergence of gene duplicates and the evolution of development. Philos Trans R Soc Lond B Biol Sci . 2017 Feb 5;372(1713):20150480.
- Convergent and divergent evolution in carnivorous pitcher plant traps. New Phytol . 2018 Feb;217(3):1035-1041.