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A biological genus is a taxonomic rank made up of species having similar characteristics. It refers to a collection of species that are physically or phylogenetically linked.A biological genus is a taxonomic rank made up of species having similar characteristics. It refers to a collection of species that are physically or phylogenetically linked.
The term genera comes from the Latin word genus, which means “family.” It can imply “birth,” “descent,” “origin,” “kind,” or “type.” The plural version of the word is genera. As most taxonomic families are made up of many genera, the notion of genera applies to more than one genus.
What is Genus?
A genus is a taxonomic category that ranks below family and above species in biological categorization. A genus is made up of species with similar features. As of 2016, the number of published genus names was estimated to be about 510,000. The Catalogue of Life listed 173,363 approved genus names for living and extinct species in 2018. Genus names with no species for some groupings are also included in their report. The genus is the initial word of a scientific name in binomial nomenclature, with the first letter capitalised. They are italicised or added with quotes (“”) along with the particular epithet, e.g., Homo sapiens or “Homo sapiens.”
The systematic categorization of living things based on features, hierarchical, or evolutionary relationships is known as organism classification. One of the most important parts of taxonomy is classification. In order to discover links between and among organisms, researchers look at their morphology, anatomy, physiology, evolution, behaviour, development, and genetics. They are then divided into taxonomic groupings and organised into a taxonomic hierarchy. Domain, kingdom, phylum, class, order, family, genus, and species are the most frequent taxonomic levels.
Genus taxonomy is a level of taxonomy that is typically higher than species but lower than family. Carl Linnaeus, a Swedish botanist, made one of the most important contributions to the systematized categorization of organisms. Linnaean is the term given to the categorization system in which creatures are classified into taxa. He was also the one who invented binomial nomenclature. Organisms are categorised in the Linnaean system based on assumed homologies, or similarities in anatomical, morphological, and physiological characteristics. The more homologous structures organisms have, the more probable they are evolutionarily linked.
The Naming System
The genus is the initial word of a scientific name in binomial nomenclature. The genus name is italicised and capitalised. The lion’s binomial name, for example, is Panthera leo. The genus name, Panthera, is the first component, while the specific epithet, leo, is the second. A taxonomist (a person who is knowledgeable about taxonomy) lends a scientific name to a species. Monophyly, sufficient compactness, and distinctness are required for a genus to be descriptively valuable. Monophyly is described by Willi Hennig, a German biologist, as groupings that share derived features or traits that separate them from other creature groups.
When it comes to appropriate compactness, it indicates that the genus does not need to be too enlarged. In addition, the genus name must be unique in terms of evolutionary important characteristics, including ecology, morphology, and biogeography. The Nomenclature Codes give an ideal standard for genus classification and naming. The common or vernacular name differs from the binomial name. In contrast to the former, which is standardised and widely used, the latter is non-standardized and varies by place.
Genus vs Species
In the biological categorization system, a species of organism is considered the most fundamental unit or category. A group must contain at least two individuals capable of generating viable offspring to be considered a species rank (especially through sexual reproduction). Even if they belong to the same genus, organisms from distinct species cannot usually interbreed since their progeny would be sterile. Those that can reproduce and sire viable children of the same sort would be considered species of a certain group of creatures. As a result, they would share the same DNA, have comparable physical and morphological characteristics, and exhibit communal behaviour.
The rank of species is lower than that of a genus. As a result, a genus is more comprehensive and has a broader reach than a species. Nonetheless, because the genus is below the taxonomic family, it would be less comprehensive than a family, which acts as a unified umbrella for related genera. Certain species, such as variants and formae, can be further split into subspecies (called subspecies). When naming an organism, the genus-species format is required. In binomial nomenclature, the genus is the generic name and the species is the specific name. For instance, Allium cepa is a kind of onion (commonly known as onion). The generic name is Allium, whereas the specific name is Cepa.
Genus and Family
A group of one or more genera is referred to as a taxonomic family. A similar characteristic exists among the genera of a given family. As a result, a family is generally more comprehensive and contains a larger number of species. The genera in a family share similar features because they evolved from the same ancestors. A family is above the genus level and below the order level in the taxonomic hierarchy.
The basic genus is the representative of a taxonomic family in current biological taxonomy. As a result, the latter is defined by one or more genera within a family. The International Code of Zoological Nomenclature establishes the foundational principles of zoology. As a result, the type genus would be used to designate the family group. For example, the Cricetidae family’s type genus is Cricetus (Leske, 1779) The mallard Anas platyrhynchos is another example. The genus Anas is the type genus for the Anatidae family. Canis lupus (dogs and wolves) are members of the Canidae family. The surname Canis is derived from the generic name.
The genus might be the root, while the family name could be the stem, with names ending in –idae being common. In certain cases, the next major taxonomic level, notably order, is also determined by the original genus. Dogs and wolves, for example, are members of the Carnivora order. A type genus, like a type species, should be assigned a family name. If a specimen is found to be of a different genus, the generic name is renamed to a junior synonym.
A genus may be accessible or unavailable in zoology. The names provided are genus names that have been published according to the International Code of Zoological Nomenclature (ICZN) and the International Commission on Zoological Nomenclature’s criteria. The names that are not accessible are those that were not published due to noncompliance with the ICZN Code. Other factors include misspellings and a lack of type species. In botany, an available name is one that has been validly published, whereas an unavailable name is one that has not yet been published.
A label, nomen invalidum, is given to an invalid genus name (nom. Inval.). In botany, a valid name is referred to as a right name or current name. It’s possible that the genus name will change throughout time and be replaced by another. When new knowledge becomes available, something occurs. As a result, the previously approved term becomes a synonym. Catodon (Linnaeus, 1761), Cetus (Billberg, 1828), Meganeuron (Gray, 1865), Megistosaurus (Harlan, 1828), Phiseter (Bonnaterre, 1789), Physalus (Lacépède, 1804), Physeterus (Duméril, 1806), and Tursio are some of the synonyms for Physeter (Linnaeus (Fleming, 1822).
In biological taxonomy, a homonym is a name that is shared by two taxa. The ambrosia beetle and the platypus, for example, were given the genus name Platypus. Despite this, the ambrosia beetle was the first to be given the genus name Platypus, while the platypus was later given the name Ornithorhynchus. Because they are both from the Kingdom Animalia, they cannot have the same generic name. However, it is still discouraged to use the same genus for specimens from different kingdoms. There are hundreds of examples of species belonging to the same genus from different kingdoms. Aoutus, for example, is the genus name for both night monkeys and golden peas.
Homo (Latin for “man”) is a genus of humans that belongs to the Hominini tribe of the Hominidae family, order Primates, class Mammalia. Bipedalism, opposable thumb, possession of a notochord that is later replaced by a vertebral column, live birth, and mammary glands producing breast milk in women to nurture the newly born are the essential characteristics of human species in the genus Homo. Several species are listed in this genus, for example. Only one species, H. sapiens, is still alive today (modern).
The following is a list of human species by genus (genus Homo).
• H. habilis
• H. rudolfensis
• H. gautengensis
• H. erectus
• H. ergaster
• H. antecessor
• H. heidelbergensis
• H. cepranensis
• H. rhodesiensis
• H. naledi
• H. neanderthalensis
• H. floresiensis
• H. tsaichangensis
• Denisova hominin
• Red Deer Cave people
• H. s. sapiens (modern)
These animals have a highly developed brain and sophisticated cognitive abilities, especially in abstract reasoning, problem-solving, self-awareness, and eloquent communication. They walk with an erect carriage on two legs. Their teeth are smaller than those of other primates. These characteristics distinguish them from other genera, such as Australopithecus. Australopithecus is also a member of the Hominini tribe. Their brains were roughly a third of the size of modern humans’ brains. They were typically smaller and shorter than humans (between 3’11 and 4’7). Because their bodies are completely covered in hair, they are more morphologically similar to chimps and bonobos than to humans. However, Astralopithecus had a role in human development.
The genus Homo is thought to have descended from one of this genus’ species millions of years ago. Ardipithecus is another genus in the Hominidae family. This genus has already become extinct. They broke away from the chimps. They have a gripping hallux, or big toe, that allows them to easily travel from one tree to another. It’s debatable if this genus is the oldest human progenitor because they behave more like chimps than humans. Sahelanthropus is a genus of extinct animals that lived during the Miocene era, notably at the time when chimps and humans split.
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