What is Gram-Positive Bacteria?
In bacteriology, gram-positive bacteria produces a positive outcome in the Gram stain test, which is generally used to rapidly arrange bacteria into two general classifications as per their sort of cell.
Gram-positive bacteria take up the violet stain utilized in the test, and afterward have all the earmarks of being purple-shaded when seen through an optical magnifying instrument.
This is on the grounds that the thick peptidoglycan layer in the bacterial cell divider holds the stain after it is washed away from the remainder of the example, in the decolorization phase of the test.
On the other hand, gram-negative bacteria can’t hold the violet stain after the decolorization step; liquor utilized in this stage debases the external layer of gram-negative cells, making the cell divider more permeable and unequipped for holding the precious stone violet stain.
Their peptidoglycan layer is a lot slenderer and more sandwiched between an internal cell film and a bacterial external layer, making them take up the counterstain (safranin or fuchsine) and seem red or pink.
Notwithstanding their thicker peptidoglycan layer, gram-positive bacteria are more responsive to certain cell wall focusing on anti-toxins than gram-negative bacteria, because of the shortfall of the membrane present outside.
Etiology of Gram-Positive Bacteria
Gram-positive cocci incorporate Staphylococcus (catalase-positive), which develops bunches, and Streptococcus (catalase-negative), which fills in chains.
The staphylococci further partition into coagulase-positive (S. aureus) and coagulase-negative (S. epidermidis and S. saprophyticus) species. Streptococcus bacteria partition into Strep. pyogenes (Group A), Strep. agalactiae (Group B). Gram-positive bacilli (rods) partition as per their capacity to deliver spores.
Bacillus and Clostridia are spore-framing rods while Listeria and Corynebacterium are not. Spore-framing rods that produce spores can make due in conditions for a long time.
Additionally, the stretching fiber rods envelop Nocardia and actinomyces. Gram-positive living beings have a thicker peptidoglycan cell wall contrasted and gram-negative bacteria.
It is a 20 to 80 nm thick polymer while the peptidoglycan layer of the gram-negative cell wall is 2 to 3 nm thick and covered with an external lipid bilayer film.
Circulatory system disease death rates have expanded by 78% in only twenty years. Gram-positive life forms have exceptionally factor development and opposition designs.
The SCOPE project (Surveillance and Control of Pathogens of Epidemiologic Importance) found that gram-positive living beings in those with a fundamental threat represented 62% of all circulatory system diseases in 1995 and 76% in 2000 while gram-negative life forms represented 22% and 14% of contaminations for these years.
Pathophysiology of Gram-Positive Bacteria
Staphylococcus aureus is a gram-positive, catalase-positive, coagulase-positive cocci in groups. S. aureus can cause incendiary sicknesses, including skin contaminations, pneumonia, endocarditis, septic joint pain, osteomyelitis, and abscesses.
S. aureus can likewise cause poisonous shock disorder (TSST-1), singed skin condition (exfoliative poison, and food contamination (enterotoxin).
Staphylococcus epidermidis is a gram-positive, catalase-positive, coagulase-negative cocci in bunches and is novobiocin touchy.
S. epidermidis ordinarily contaminates prosthetic gadgets and IV catheters creating biofilms. Staphylococcus saprophyticus is novobiocin safe and is a typical verdure of the genital plot and perineum. S. saprophyticus represents the second most normal reason for simple urinary lot contamination (UTI).
Streptococcus pneumoniae is a gram-positive, epitomized, lancet-formed diplococci, most generally causing otitis media, pneumonia, sinusitis, and meningitis. Streptococcus viridans comprise of Strep. mutans and Strep mitis found in the ordinary vegetation of the oropharynx ordinarily cause dental conveys and subacute bacterial endocarditis (Strep. sanguinis).
Streptococcus pyogenes is a gram-positive gathering A cocci that can cause pyogenic diseases (pharyngitis, cellulitis, impetigo, erysipelas), toxigenic contaminations (red fever, necrotizing fasciitis), and immunologic diseases (glomerulonephritis and rheumatic fever). ASO titer distinguishes S. pyogenes diseases.
Streptococcus agalactiae is a gram-positive gathering B cocci that colonize the vagina and is discovered chiefly in infants.
Pregnant ladies need evaluating for Group-B Strep (GBS) at 35 to 37 weeks of incubation. Enterococci is a gram-positive gathering D cocci discovered essentially in the colonic vegetation and can cause biliary lot contaminations and UTIs. Vancomycin-safe enterococci (VRE) are a significant reason for nosocomial diseases.
Gram-Positive Bacteria Rod
Clostridia is a gram-positive spore-shaping bar comprising of C. tetani, C. botulinum, C. perfringens, and C. difficile. C. difficile is frequently optional to anti-microbial use (clindamycin/ampicillin), PPI use, and late hospitalization.
Treatment includes principally with oral vancomycin. Bacillus anthracis is a gram-positive spore-framing bar that produces Bacillus anthracis poison bringing about a ulcer with a dark eschar.
Bacillus cereus is a gram-positive bar that can be procured from spores making due half-cooked or warmed rice.
Indications incorporate sickness, heaving, and watery non-wicked loose bowels. Corynebacterium diphtheria is a gram-positive club-molded bar that can cause pseudomembranous pharyngitis, myocarditis, and arrhythmias. Pathogen immunizations forestall diphtheria.
Listeria monocytogenes is a gram-positive bar gained by the ingestion of cold store meats and unpasteurized dairy items or by vaginal transmission during birth.
Listeria can give rise to neonatal meningitis, gastroenteritis, and septicemia. Treatment incorporates ampicillin.
Gram-Positive Bacteria Cell Wall Structure
The cell wall construction of Gram positive bacteria comprises of the periplasmic space encased between the plasma film and a thick peptidoglycan layer.
In contrast with Gram negative bacteria, the periplasmic space of Gram positive bacteria is more modest in volume and the cell wall is a lot thicker, going from 15 and 80 nanometers.
The thick cell wall is made out of a few peptidoglycan layers, a design dependent on a glycan spine and exceptionally cross-connected peptide chains.
Another particular trait of Gram positive bacteria is the presence of teichoic acids inside the cell wall.
Teichoic acids are anionic polyol phosphate polymers that give inflexibility to the cell wall by either securing to the plasma film or through the covalent connection to peptidoglycan.
Anionic polymers additionally have comparative capacities to the external layer of Gram negative bacteria by impacting penetrability, interceding cooperations and going about as a platform for extracytoplasmic catalysts during cell-wall development.
Gram-Positive Bacteria MRSA
Gram positive bacteria are more defenseless to treatment with anti-microbials than Gram negative bacteria since they do not have an external layer, regardless certain bacterial strains show antimicrobial opposition.
Methicillin-safe Staphylococcus aureus or MRSA is a typical Gram positive microorganism that is impervious to all β-lactam antimicrobials including penicillin.
Numerous β-lactam antimicrobials are given as first line treatment for staphylococcal disease in view of their prevalent viability.
Protection from these medications implies that second line specialists are required, which confound treatment regimens and adversely sway patient results.
The impact of anti-toxins on Gram positive bacteria is decreased on account of antimicrobial opposition instruments, for example, β-lactamase creation and alterations to the objective site of the anti-toxin.
The hereditary determinants of anti-microbial opposition are communicated between bacteria through both vertical and level exchange, with a few qualities equipped for being embedded in an integron prompting the obstruction of various antimicrobials.
Restorative systems for the treatment of MRSA and other antimicrobial safe bacteria incorporate higher anti-microbial measurement, mix treatment with non-ordinary medications and the improvement of new medications.
Gram-Positive Bacteria Citations
- Gram-negative and Gram-positive bacterial extracellular vesicles. Semin Cell Dev Biol . 2015 Apr;40:97-104.
- Surface Proteins on Gram-Positive Bacteria. Microbiol Spectr . 2019 Jul;7(4):10.1128/microbiolspec.GPP3-0012-2018.
- Extracellular Vesicle Biogenesis and Functions in Gram-Positive Bacteria. Infect Immun . 2020 Nov 16;88(12):e00433-20.
- Wall teichoic acids of gram-positive bacteria. Annu Rev Microbiol . 2013;67:313-36.