Microorganisms comprises of varied microbes, fungi, protozoa. It also includes many microscopic plants viruses, viroid and also prions.
They can be seen anywhere on this planet anywhere where habitat is seen. It can flourish on nutritive media where researchers can do studies on it by cultivation and producing colonies and can help for research purpose.
Microorganisms gives rise to various diseases in living beings including plants and animals, although they cause diseases, they can be useful in many different and friendly ways.
One such type of bacteria is lactobacillus and there are many species of lactobacillus which are useful and can help in digestion, and on urinary and reproductive system as well and cause no harm.
They are also used in various consumable forms such as yogurts and probiotic drink or supplements.
It is most popular to treat diarrhea when patients are given antibiotics which may suppress the gut flora and this type of bacteria helps to protect and increase good gut flora which prevents it.
Lactobacillus contributes significantly in improving the overall health in living beings.
They are also used and prescribed for general digestion problems, large intestine disorders which causes stomach pain, irritable bowel syndrome (IBS), colic in infants, inflammation of bowel track or colon, etc.
It is a gram-positive, aerotolerant anaerobes or microaerophilic, rod-shaped, non-spore-forming bacteria under the genus Lactobacillus and has as many as 260 phylogenetically, metabolically varied species.
Its taxonomic update of the genus in 2020 put lactobacilli to 25 genera.
Metabolism of Lactobacillus
They are the only group of the lactic acid bacteria that comprises of homofermentative and heterofermentative organisms and in the Lactobacillaceae, either metabolism is jointly used by all strains of Lactobacillus.
In Lactobacilli hexoses are metabolised by glycolysis to lactate as higher end product which is termed as homofermentative.
It may be heterofermentative, which means that hexoses are broken down by the Phosphoketolase pathway to lactate, CO2 and acetate or ethanol as the end product.
They are aerotolerant which means it is manganese-dependent and has been seen in Lactiplantibacillus plantarum.
Few lactobacillus species respire only if heme and menaquinone are available in the growth medium but usually don’t need iron for development.
This species is homofermentative, do not exhibit pyruvate formate lyase, and manty don’t ferment pentoses example: in L. crispatus, pentose metabolism is strain selective and is gained by lateral gene transmit.
Genome of Lactobacillus
The genome is not constant and differs, size from 1.2 to 4.9 Mb (megabases) and the quantity of protein-coding genes vary from 1,267 to about 4,758 genes in Fructilactobacillus sanfranciscensis and Lentilactobacillus parakefiri.
Differences can be seen in one species as well for example in L. crispatus genome sizes varies in between 1.83 to 2.7 Mb, or 1,839 to 2,688.
Lactobacillus comprises a stock of compound microsatellites in the coding area that are not perfect and usually possess different motifs and they also comprises of many plasmids.
In many new research study they have delineated that the plasmids encode the genes which are necessary to acquittance of lactobacilli to the surrounding.
Types of Lactobacillus
L. delbrueckii is a type of species of the genus, is 0.5 to 0.8 μm and can be seen in single or in small groups in chains.
L. acidophilus, L. brevis, L. casei, and L. sanfranciscensis are some another types.
The quantity of lactic acid generated differs. In L. brevis and L. fermentum, glucose metabolism is heterofermentative, with lactic acid sums upto 50% of end products and ethanol, acetic acid, and carbon dioxide as the rest 50%.
The organisms that cannot metabolise glucose receives its energy organic components like galactose, malate, or fructose.
Health Benefits of Lactobacillus
Lactobacillus spp. are fundamental as purposeful and essential as deliberate or accidental component in many food available.
An excellent deal of attention has been given to its significant property as being probiotics.
Strains that are evaluated for this beneficial property comprises of L. acidophilus LA1, L. acidophilus NCFB 1748, Lactobacillus GG, L. casei Shirota, Lactobacillus gasseri ADH, and Lactobacillus reuteri.
Other beneficial property of Lactobacillus accommodates immune improvements, decreasing fecal enzyme process, inhibiting intestinal disorders, and decreasing incidence of viral diarrhea and this probiotic strains are said to own a capability to live in/habitat in the intestinal tract, and in a good way affecting the microflora and maybe excluding colonization by pathogens.
Albeit the positive effects from having of probiotics is critical, authentic records still remains in water and the clinical trials often have hurdles and costly to conduct specially in people within which compliance with experimental protocols and normalizing for other genetic and environmental factors are hard.
For now the major focus is onselective isolates, such as L. casei GG, and research is directed and is being built around these strains.
Ergo, variety of products are named as probiotics and are clubbed together with more traditional dairy products to be sold in the market. This are easily available for the normal people.
Lactobacillus spp. are important components in many food products which either we know or may be present unknowingly.
Significant amount of attention has been directed toward their potential benefits and importance as probiotics.
Strains that have been verified for their probiotic properties are L. acidophilus LA1, L. acidophilus NCFB 1748, Lactobacillus GG, Lactobacillus casei, L. Shirota, gasseri ADH, and Lactobacillus reuteri.
Many reported clinical effects attributed to the consumption of it consist of immune enhancement, lowering faecal enzyme activity, preventing intestinal problems, and reducing viral diarrhoea.
Most probiotic strains are accepted to have a capacity to colonize the intestinal lot, subsequently decidedly influencing the microflora and maybe barring colonization by microbes.
But the possible advantages from the utilization of probiotics are huge, research is as yet slacking.
Clinical preliminaries are troublesome and costly to perform particularly in people in which consistency with trial conventions and normalizing for other hereditary and natural components are troublesome.
Huge worth and spotlight are currently being set on specific confines, like L. casei GG, and protected innovation is being worked around these strains.
These are filled in milk and split it to frame curd. The LAB creates acids that coagulate and do not completely digest the milk proteins which upgrades the wholesome property by raising vit. B12.
Presently, various items are assigned as probiotics and are sold alongside more conventional dairy items.
Probiotics especially related to Bifidobacterium spp. and Lactobacillus spp. have studied and research shows that they exhibit anticarcinogenic, antimutagenic, and antitumorigenic activities ergo, more research needs to be executed to verify its authenticity.