Table of Contents
Plant Cell vs Animal Cell
As animal cells are flexible, they don’t have cell wall, whereas plants have primary and secondary cell wall. Instead, plasma membrane is present in animal cells.
Plasmodesmata is not seen in animal cells which is seen in plant cell.
In plants during cell division, in the telophase a cell plate is seen, which is absent in animal cell and that process takes place when cell squeezes to form two cells.
Animals do contain centriole which is absent in plant cell. vacuoles are present in both but the size differs.
Animals have a very small vacuole whereas plants have a huge vacuole.
In animal cells, centrioles are present and in plant they are absent.
Cell is the fundamental unit of life, which cannot be seen without the microscope. The shape of older cell is somewhat box or cuboidal consisting of 14 faces, whereas young cells are circular in shape. Plant can be categorized into two parts; one with the nucleus and everything except the nucleus is the cytoplasm.
Cell wall is found in plant cell. Middle lamella is the portion present between the primary cell wall of the nearby cell. There is a secondary cell wall and both are made up of cellulose and secondary cell wall is found within the primary cell wall and it also contains other components such as lignin.
Plasma membrane is elastic in nature and controls the movement of molecules. Endoplasmic reticulum, mitochondria, plastid, golgi bodies and ribosomes are the organelles found within the plant.
Plant Cell Diagram
Plants contain a nuclear envelope which has pores so that the required molecules can pass through and surrounds the nucleus. Within the nucleus are the chromosomes present and the exact number varies from plants to plant. Within the cytoplasm are located various organelles and the movement of cytoplasm is termed as cyclosis.
Animal Cell Diagram
The center most part of the cell which is the most important and huge in size is the nucleus, which is absent in red blood cells and abundant in skeletal muscle. Plants contain a nuclear envelope which has pores so that the required molecules can pass through and surrounds the nucleus.
Within the nucleus are the chromosomes present and the exact number varies from plants to plant. Through the nuclear pores the RNA, protein passes, which is an energy driven process when the cell receives the signals and the size of pores changes.
Chromatids are formed when the DNA and protein assemble in the nucleus and have function during cell division where they get condensed. The place where ribosomes gathers is the nucleolus and is found within the nucleus.
Synthesis of proteins from amino acid is the function of ribosomes and can be freely moving or attached to an organelle. In cases where it is attached, proteins are moved from lumen to ER to golgi bodies so that they are synthesized outside the cell or dispersed to organs. In the cytosol, those proteins are secreted which are not bound.
A net like structure which consist of tubules within the cytoplasm and the net like structure possess folding so that increases the surface are so that the enzyme can act. This is termed as endoplasmic reticulum.
It has two types: smooth and rough ER. Smooth ER lacks ribosomes whereas the rough ER possesses ribosomes. It functions are transport of intracellular protein, lipid and carbohydrate production, drug detoxification and regulation of calcium levels.
Golgi apparatus are found near the nucleus, although can be present in multiple number or as a single body within the cell. Its function is to sort proteins to the vesicles, which will transfer it to various organelles.
There is another organ found between the plasma membrane and golgi body it is the endosomes, which have tubule like shape. The vesicle traffic is cleared by them and is done by either fusing with them or pinching them.
The powerhouse of the cell is the mitochondria, which synthesizes energy called the ATP. Mitochondria possess two layers; outer one is smooth in nature and the other layer is folded to form cristae. There exists a type of DNA called the mitochondrial DNA, which the individual gets from their mother. Active cells require more mitochondria than the ones which are not that active.
Lysosome, the extremely acidic fluid, have functions in the immune system. They metabolize bacteria and their debris due to the presence of enzymes in their fluid.
The single membrane organ is the peroxisomes, which maintains the homeostasis and uses oxygen and excretes the hydrogen in the hydrogen peroxide form.
The part which allows the movement of bacteria, plants and animals and changes its shape are the filamentous proteins called the cytoskeleton.
Cytoskeleton is made of three filaments and are the Microfilaments which are formed from actin protein which readily construct and deconstruct. They are present in bountiful amount and are very thin. Microtubules as the name says they are in the form of tubules and are shallow.
In the nerve cells axons are these microtubules present and are very strong. They have a center region called the centrosome encapsulates the centrioles and contains a group of 9 microtubules.
Intermediate filaments are present in those places where the cells are in stress. They do not have the ability to construct and deconstruct themselves.
The process of photosynthesis is not possible without this organ. Stroma is present in the matrix of the chloroplast. Within the stroma lies the thylakoids which forms a pile of coins, which plays a role in the photosynthesis process. Chloroplast as well have their own DNA but are semi-autonomous.
Organelle which has a membrane called tonoplast is the vacuole along with cell sap which contains pigments and other substance. Vacuoles occupy a large position around 90%, for a single vacuole.
The division of cell is known as cell cycle and in the interphase lies the inactive cell, which has three divisions. Mitosis has four phases and after the mitosis the division takes place in active part of the cell which is the meristems.
The stages of mitosis are: Prophase where the outer envelope dissociates and the double stranded chromosomes are seen. In metaphase, they assemble at the center of the cell and spindle fiber is formed. The chromosome dissociates as the sister chromatids move apart from each other to form daughter chromosome and moves to cell’s end.
They form a covering called the nuclear envelope and have separate nucleus and thus two separate daughter cells are formed.
Plant Cell vs Animal Cell Citations
- Centrosome function and assembly in animal cells. Nat Rev Mol Cell Biol . 2015 Oct;16(10):611-24.
- Plant cell culture technology in the cosmetics and food industries: current state and future trends. Appl Microbiol Biotechnol . 2018 Oct;102(20):8661-8675.
- Plant cell wall-mediated immunity: cell wall changes trigger disease resistance responses. Plant J . 2018 Feb;93(4):614-636.