What is Plant Development?
Growth and development of any organism is closely associated with cell division and nutrient uptake by the organism.
The open form of growth produced by the meristem makes a plant have an unlimited growth and makes it unique mechanism for survival.
The life history of an organism is depicted as the development of organism from its birth to death.
The cumulative changes in the living system, physiological and metabolic activities, different phases of grow and reproduction are all an important aspect of development of an organism.
The development initiates from the zygote and covers the entire life processes including structural maturity and functional maturity.
The development is always about the pattern formation and combination of functions and is important as it ensures the survival of progeny and takes place in evolution of whole living organism.
Plant Development Process
The changes and modification taking place during the zygote differentiation corresponds with the developmental cues for the plant maturation and growth in the future.
The basic plan for survival is well laid in the zygote as basic differentiation becomes well defined and acts as a key for body plan of the whole organism.
The development is gradual and progressive takes place in a sequence, they are:
Plant Development Steps
1. The zygote, a highly organized precursor develops into embryo by embryogenesis
2. The 2 basic body patterns are formed by the asymmetrical division: apical -basal pattern and radial pattern.
3. Polarity of the cell is established and apical and basal part is determined
4. After subsequent cell division and differentiation, the meristematic tissue is formed
5. The primary meristematic tissues are protoderm, ground meristem and procambium
6. Cell divisions takes place now at the apical portion of the polar sides – bipolar differentiation distinguishing root and shoot.
7. The primary meristematic tissues formed are especially for the elongation.
8. These primary meristematic tissues now mature to form cotyledons forming a radicle and plumule – root and shoot primordia.
9. Cotyledons stages are seed germination period where the shoot differentiates into leaves, nodes and internodes.
10. The formation and development of root and shoot is the vegetative growth of the plant
11. On further differentiation when the apical meristem give rise to floral apical meristem this is the reproductive stage.
12. The primary successive growth results due to the apical meristem.
13. The primary tissues increase in thickness (i.e.) girth and enter secondary growth.
14. Secondary growth results in the radial thickening of the plant results in increase of cell division in secondary cambial growth.
15. The secondary growth meristem results in the production of vascular cambium – secondary vascular cambium tissues.
16. The lateral meristem aids in increase of volume of the secondary tissues.
17. The maturity of plant leads to the termination of plant’s life after the maturation and differentiation.
18. Senescence is the gradual programmed cell death which can be controlled by the chemical regulators of the plant
19. Senescence can also be caused by the accumulation of change which decreases the productivity if an organism causing death.
20. The development, differentiation and maturation is a gradual process, similarly the senescence is also a gradual process where the plant reduces the utilization of basic proteins for the synthesis of food and energy. Later reduced metabolism will lead to death of the plant under natural condition.
Plant Development Citations
- Plant Development: How Leaves Take Shape. Curr Biol . 2019 Aug 19;29(16):R803-R805.
- Phyllotaxis as geometric canalization during plant development. Development . 2020 Oct 12;147(19):dev165878.
- Shape and form in plant development. Semin Cell Dev Biol . 2018 Jul;79:1-2.
- Expanding roles for pectins in plant development. J Integr Plant Biol . 2018 Oct;60(10):910-923.
- Functions and Regulation of Programmed Cell Death in Plant Development. Annu Rev Cell Dev Biol . 2016 Oct 6;32:441-468.
- Cadmium and Plant Development: An Agony from Seed to Seed. Int J Mol Sci . 2019 Aug 15;20(16):3971.