What is Protein Translation?
We all know that anything which is translated can make it easy to activate or become functionable. Like how we want us to translate the other languages into our own mother tongues so that it can be very easy for us to understand, likewise our cells also want the information to get translated in its own way to make the enzymes and the body to get activated.
Like wise protein translation is very important for the carrying out the genetic process.
Translation is a process in which protein is synthesized from the information that is being stored in the messenger RNA, during this process of translation, the mRNA sequence is being read by the genetic code, with the help of set of rules in the genomes, mRNA is translated as the 20-letter code of amino acids, which acts as a building block.
The genetic code is a set of three letter combinations of the nucleotides, which are known as codons.
Each of the codon corresponds to the specific amino acid or stop signal. Translation often occurs in a structure of called as ribosome, which is usually known as the site for the synthesis of proteins.
It is also known as protein factory. The ribosome is made up of smaller and larger sub unit and it is also a complex molecule which composed of several proteins along with the ribosomal RNAs.
Translation process in the messenger RNA occurs in three stages as initiation, elongation and termination. And they can be discussed here.
Protein Translation Features
Generally, in the molecular biology and the genetics, protein translation is the process where the ribosomes that are present in the endoplasmic reticulum and the cytoplasm synthesizes the proteins during the process of transcription of the DNA to RNA in the nucleus of the cell.
This entire process is termed as gene expression. During the translation, the messenger RNA is being decoded in a ribosome, outside a nucleus, which produces a specific amino acid chain or a polypeptide chain, which later folds into an active protein and performs its functions the ribosomes which induces the binding of complementary tRNA anticodons sequences in the mRNA by facilitating the decoding process by inducing the binding site.
The tRNAs carries a specific amino acid test which are chained together into a polypeptide as the messenger RNA by passing through and it is being read by the ribosome.
Steps of Protein Translation
Translating process takes place in 3 steps as initiation, elongation and termination.
In the process of initiation, ribosome assembles itself around the target mRNA, initially tRNA attaches to the start codon.
Elongation is the mid process of the translation where last tRNA which is validated by the small ribosomal sub unit helps in transferring the amino acid by carrying it to the large unit of the ribosome, which then further binds to the one of tRNA is present prior to it.
The ribosome then moves next of the mRNA codon and continues the process of translocation which creates an amino acid chain.
When a stop codon is reached finally, the ribosomes release the polypeptide. The complex of the ribosome remains intact and it furthers moves next to the mRNA to get translated.
In prokaryotes, like bacteria and archaea, the process of translation occurs in the cytosol. During this process, the large and small sub units of the ribosomes bind with the messenger RNA, where as in eukaryotes, translocation occurs in the cytoplasm and it also occurs across the membrane of the endoplasmic reticulum and this process is known as co-translational translocation.
During this trans locational process, the ribosomes binds to the outer membrane in the endo plasmic reticulum so that it is also known as rough endoplasmic reticulum.
The new protein which is synthesized is released in the endoplasmic reticulum, and the newly created polypeptide are stored within the endoplasmic reticulum for future vesicle transport and it is secreted in the cell membrane and it is used for immediate activities.
Many types of RNAs can be transcribed such as tRNA, Rrna, and the small nuclear RNA does not undergo translation to get translated into proteins.
Mechanism of Protein Translation
The basic process of protein synthesis is done by addition of one nucleotide at the same time which ends in formation of a protein.
Ribosomes play an important role in synthesizing the proteins. A ribosome is usually made up of two subunits, smaller and a larger unit, where these two units come together before a process of translation in the messenger RNA which is further translated into a protein and provides a site for the process of translation for the production of polypeptides.
The selection of the type of amino acids is decided by the messenger RNA molecule.
Where as each molecule of the added amino acid gets matched up with a three nucleotide sequences in the messenger RNA.
For the formation of each of the triplet codon, the respective amino acid should be added to the chain at match the nucleotides to form a triplet in the mRNA.
In the same manner a sequence of amino acids is made. Then further mRNA carries the information which has been encoded in the ribonucleotide sequence and they are read by the translational machinery process to form a triplet codon.
These codons then specify a specific amino acid. The messenger RNA sequence is used as the template for the assembling in an order and the chain of amino acids that form a protein.
Protein Translation Citations
- Protein Translation and Psychiatric Disorders. Neuroscientist . 2020 Feb;26(1):21-42.
- Epigenetic Regulation of the Protein Translation Machinery. EBioMedicine . 2017 Mar;17:3-4.
- Protein translation, 2008. Aging Cell . 2008 Dec;7(6):777-82.
- Protein Synthesis Initiation in Eukaryotic Cells. Cold Spring Harb Perspect Biol . 2018 Dec 3;10(12):a033092.