Anything which occupies space and has mass is called matter. The matter is divided into two categories which are; Mixtures and Pure substances.
1. Pure Substances
Pure substances are defined as substances made up of only one kind of atom or molecule.
Pure substances also have fixed shapes and structures.
Pure substances are further classified into elements and compounds.
For example; gold metal
Mixtures are also called impure substances because it is composed of different kinds of components.
Mixtures are further divided into two categories which are a homogeneous mixture and heterogeneous mixture.
Example; water and sand, salt and water.
Difference Between Pure Substances and Mixtures
|Pure substances are made up of a single kind of particles||The mixture is composed of two or more different substances.|
|Pure substances can be classified into elements and compounds||Mixtures are classified into homogenous and heterogenous|
|They have a definite set of properties||They don’t have a definite set of properties|
|Components of pure substances cannot be separated by physical methods||Components of the mixture can be separated by physical methods such as evaporation, etc.|
|For example; hydrogen gas||For example; oil and water|
Properties of Pure Substances
• Pure substances are in most cases homogeneous in nature containing only one form of atoms or molecules.
• Those substances especially have a constant or uniform composition throughout.
• Pure substances have static boiling and melting points.
Pure Substances Examples
All elements are commonly pure materials. Some of them encompass gold, copper, oxygen, chlorine, diamond, etc.
Compounds including water, salt or crystals, baking soda among others are also grouped under pure substances.
Depending on who you communicate to, homogeneous mixtures can also be taken into consideration as examples of pure materials.
Examples of homogeneous combinations include vegetable oil and air.
Heterogeneous mixtures are not considered pure substances.
Examples of homogenous mixtures that aren’t pure substances include gravel, a mixture of salt and sugar, etc.
A pure substance that has only one kind of atom and also cannot be broken down into two or more simpler substances by the physical or chemical method is called an element. Thus, when we break down gold, we still get gold. Thus, it is an element.
Properties of Elements
• An element is homogeneous; it’s a pure substance, made from a single form of atoms. As an instance, iron and silver are the product of only iron and silver atoms. Consequently, they’re elements.
• Elements cannot be broken down into more simpler substances by any physical or chemical processes such as heat, chemical reactions.
• Elements have sharp melting and boiling factors.
• Elements are categorized as metals, non-metals, and metalloids.
Metals are the elements that voluntarily lose an electron to shape a positive ion or a cation.
For example; Gold, silver, copper, iron, potassium, etc.
– Metals have lustre. For Example; Gold.
– Metals are accurate conductors of warmth and energy. As metals have unfastened electrons in them, they may be able to behavior warmness and electricity. Example: Copper
– Metals are malleable, which means that it’s easy to mallet them into thin sheets. Instance: Aluminum
– Metals are ductile, meaning they can be drawn into wires.
– Metals are sonorous. They deliver a ringing sound when they’re hit via a tough iron rod. For Example; copper.
– Nearly all metals are solids at room temperature. Exception; Sodium and potassium are tender metals. Tungsten is a bad conductor of electricity.
Non – metals are those elements voluntarily gain an electron(s) to shape a negative ion or anion.
Examples encompass Hydrogen, Oxygen, Iodine, etc.
– Non-metals exist as solids, liquids, and gases. Instance: Silicon and carbon are solids; bromine is a liquid; chlorine, fluorine, and oxygen are gases.
– Non-metals are non-lustrous, which means they have a dull look. Instance: The surfaces of sulfur and phosphorus do not gloss.
– Generally, non-metals have very low density. For Example, Oxygen and nitrogen are lighter than air.
– They’re not malleable.
– Non-metals, besides carbon, aren’t ductile.
– They’re terrible conductors of electricity. exception; graphite is a superb conductor of strength.
– Non-metals have low melting and boiling factors.
The factors which have intermediate characteristics among the ones of metals and non-metals are known as metalloids. They are amphoteric.
– Metalloids react both with acids and bases. Examples encompass boron, silicon, and germanium.
A natural substance, essentially composed of two or greater elements and chemically mixed in a set share is called a compound. Consequently, water is a compound. It has two elements, hydrogen, and oxygen, mixed in a set ratio.
Properties of a Compound
– A compound is homogeneous in nature, made up of identical types of molecules.
– The additives of a compound can be separated by using chemical and electrochemical strategies. Thus, water may be broken down into hydrogen and oxygen through electrolysis.
– A compound have a fixed composition.
– A compound has a sharp melting and boiling factor.
Pure Substances Citations