Table of Contents
What is Biosphere?
The biosphere is the area of the planet where living things flourish and live. It is the area of the planet that is capable of supporting life. The atmosphere, lithosphere, and hydrosphere are the three other spheres that make up the Earth. However, not all of them are home to live creatures. The biosphere is the collection of parts or places where life can be located. As a result, the biosphere may alternatively be defined as the total of all ecosystems on Earth.
The word “biosphere” comes from the Greek words “bios” (life) and “sphaira” (the form of the Earth). Eduard Suess, an English-Austrian physicist, used the term in his four-volume work “The Face of the Earth.” He discussed the relationships between living things as they are sustained by the Earth in this book.
The word “biosphere” refers to all of the Earth’s ecosystems. As a result, it encompasses both non-living (such as sunlight and water) and living creatures.
The term “biosphere” refers to the areas or regions of the Earth that are home to life. It is one of the characteristics that distinguishes the Earth from the other planets.
The biosphere, atmosphere, lithosphere (geosphere), and hydrosphere are the four spheres that make up the Earth. The biosphere is the portion of the Earth that contains all living populations as well as their surroundings. It is a component of the earth that supports life. The gaseous component of the Earth’s atmosphere surrounds the lithosphere.
The lithosphere, on the other hand, is made up of the crust and upper mantle of the Earth. In other sources, the land or terrestrial portion is referred to as the geosphere, which, unlike the lithosphere, contains the core, in addition to the crust and mantle.
All of the water on the Earth’s surface is referred to as the hydrosphere. Some sources use the word interchangeably with the ecosphere, which, properly speaking, refers to all of these spheres interacting in a closed system.
The biosphere is the part of the planet where living things exist (biology definition). All living creatures in the lithosphere, atmosphere, and hydrosphere are included. Artificial biospheres, such as Biosphere 2, which is by far the biggest closed environmental system ever constructed by mankind, are also available for research and inquiry. Bios-, which means life + sphere, is the etymology.
Origin and Evolution of Biosphere
Early prokaryotes flourished in a biosphere deprived of oxygen around 3.8 billion years ago. Some of these creatures eventually developed to be able to use light, water, and carbon dioxide to produce chemical energy-rich compounds while also creating oxygen molecules as a byproduct.
The method of producing food using light energy is now known as photosynthesis, and the creatures that can do it are known as autotrophs. As a result, more species, ranging from single-celled algae to multicellular autotrophs like vascular plants, were able to consume carbon dioxide in the atmosphere and eventually give oxygen to the environment. As the amount of oxygen in the atmosphere evolved, so did the diversity of aerobic creatures that lived and developed.
This permits more sophisticated life forms, such as vascular plants, animals, and humans, to thrive in the presence of oxygen. To answer the question, “How is biodiversity connected to the biosphere?”, the answer is straightforward. It resulted in a “healthy” environment teeming with various species. When we say “healthy,” we imply that different groups are able to fill distinct ecological niches.
Autotrophs are the food chain’s producers. Heterotrophs play the function of natural biological controls since they are unable to generate food in the same manner that autotrophs can, and so must devour other species.
Herbivores are heterotrophic organisms that only eat plants. Those who consume only animal flesh are known as carnivores, whereas those who eat both plants and animal meat are known as omnivores.
Decomposers are another significant ecological niche. These organisms breakdown deceased creatures or decaying tissues, as well as turning organic materials into simpler chemicals or molecules that feed the Earth. Fungi, for example, degrade dead plants and animal matter. They decompose the cells of deceased plants and animals into simpler compounds, which the environment may use as organic nutrients.
The lithosphere, atmosphere, and hydrosphere are the three components that make up the biosphere. However, not all of them are flourishing or inhabited by live creatures. Only the regions of the biosphere where life may be discovered and supported are considered to be part of the biosphere. The biosphere includes, for example, the area of the sky where birds may be observed flying. Higher up in the atmosphere, however, where life can not survive, is not considered part of the biosphere.
I. Abiotic Component
The following is a description of these three abiotic biosphere components:
The biosphere’s terrestrial component is known as the lithosphere. It has solid landmasses such as our continents and islands, for example.
The lower mantle and core of the planet do not support life and so are not a part of the biosphere. Apart from this, all of the other components support life, from the tiniest bacteria to huge animals and lofty trees, by providing shelter and food.
The gaseous blanket that covers the Earth is known as the atmosphere. It contains various gases like carbon dioxide, oxygen, and other gases that aid in the survival of living creatures such as plants, animals, and people.
The upper atmosphere, on the other hand, has a low oxygen content, which is why flying birds may be found under the Earth’s surface at a depth of 200 metres. Apart from supplying gases for respiration, the biosphere’s atmosphere performs a special function in shielding living creatures from the sun’s damaging UV radiation.
All of the Earth’s water is referred to as the hydrosphere. As a result, it is also known as the aquatic region. It does, however, contain solid forms like glaciers. The hydrosphere, which sustains life, plays a critical role in controlling the Earth’s temperature. It also provides the water that all living creatures require.
II. Biotic Component
Plants, animals, and microbes are among the biotic components. These biological components are also the foundation of the ecosystem’s food chain.
The major producers are plants. Photosynthesis is how they get their nourishment. They are sometimes referred to as autotrophs. They also participate in garbage recycling. They are, nevertheless, the only source of food for all living organisms, including animals and humans.
These are the ones who receive everything. They are unable to obtain their nourishment from non-organic sources. They rely on other sources, such as plants or tiny animals. Heterotrophs are another name for them. They utilise the food they eat to release energy and store it for later use. energy is used for development and growth.
Microorganisms play an important role in the environment. Fungi, algae, bacteria, viruses, and other microorganisms are among them. They also act as decomposers, reducing the quantity of waste or dead materials. This decomposition process serves as a food source for them.
Organizational Structure of Biosphere
The biosphere is primarily defined as the total of all life and living creatures on the planet. There are five layers to the organizational structure:
Large sections of the biosphere are classified into biomes. Tundra, grassland, woods, deserts, and aquatic biomes are the five types of biomes identified by scientists. A wide variety of plants and animals live in rivers, lakes, seas, oceans, and other watery environments. Desserts, on the other hand, are the driest places on the planet, with the least amount of rain each year.
Grasslands cover the Earth’s green regions. It does, however, receive moderate rainfall, although not enough to support big trees. Forests are regions where big trees predominate. Tundras are large stretches of land in the Arctic that are devoid of trees and have a continuously frozen subsurface.
A biological community and the physical environment together constitute an ecosystem. As a result, it takes into account both biotic and abiotic variables. The physical environment and living things work together as a unit. Terrestrial, freshwater, marine, and artificial ecosystems are the four types of ecosystems.
The grassland ecosystem and the forest ecosystem are examples of terrestrial ecosystems, which occur on land. The lentic and lotic ecosystems are examples of the freshwater environment, which is an aquatic ecosystem. The seas and oceans are home to the marine environment, which is a saltwater ecosystem. An artificial environment, such as a terrarium, is a man-made system.
iii. The Community of Species
Different species make up the community since the biosphere is so diverse. These species thrive in environments with acceptable or ideal abiotic variables like temperature, pH, and nutrition. A biological community, on the other hand, is described as an assemblage of interacting organisms (of the same or distinct species) living in the same place at the same time.
Population refers to all individuals of a given species residing in a single environment. The population might range from a few hundred to tens of thousands of people. Overpopulation occurs when the population of a species exceeds the ecological niche’s carrying capacity.
A population drop, on the other hand, is when the population size decreases. A population bottleneck occurs when the population size is reduced for a brief period of time. An overabundance of people may result in a battle for survival. Species will compete for limited resources with each other. As a result, a variety of symbiotic partnerships have developed.
In a partnership, individuals who give and receive are said to be in a mutualism, whereas those who inflict or cause harm to other species are said to be in a parasitic or predatory symbiosis. This is also the point at which natural selection kicks in. Species with useful or helpful variants are “favoured,” and so have a better chance of thriving and reproducing than those with less favourable characteristics.
Organisms are the biosphere’s living creatures. Possessing a cellular arrangement and system that allows for numerous life activities is one of the characteristics that sets them apart from non-living materials. A genetic material holds the code for all biological processes as well as reproduction inside the cell.
Eukaryotes and prokaryotes are both possible. Eukaryotes include people, plants, and animals, whereas prokaryotes include microorganisms. The presence of an endomembrane system and internal compartmentalization leading to the development of distinct organelles distinguishes them. Eukaryotes have certain characteristics, but prokaryotes do not.
Factors Affecting Biosphere
Living and non-living entities constantly change the biosphere that surrounds the Earth. The biosphere and the actions of the living creatures that make up the ecosystem are influenced by a variety of variables. The following three variables have varying effects on the biosphere:
• The Earth is Tilting: The tilting of the Earth has a significant impact on the biosphere. Because it causes one side of the Earth to become cooler over a period of time while the other remains warmer. Seasons are one of the physical elements that influence the sorts of organisms that thrive in a certain area.
• Natural Calamities: Natural catastrophes have the potential to have a massive and long-term influence on the ecosystem. Volcanic eruptions, earthquakes, floods, and other natural calamities damage the ecosystem. The environment is ruined by rock, water, lava, and other potential factors.
• A few Minor Details: Other minor variables, such as temperature change, water, soil erosion, or any other type of change, have an impact on the biosphere and disrupt the existence of many species.
Importance of Biosphere
• The biosphere is the link between living creatures’ healthy lives and their interactions. A little alteration in the biosphere can have a big influence on living species’ survival. The biosphere, on the other hand, is vital to all living things because of this link.
• Promote the survival of life on Earth. The biosphere’s primary purpose and significance is to promote life on Earth. All living creatures on the Earth maintain life on the surface by adapting to diverse environmental changes, suitable climatic conditions, and the supply of energy as food.
There are several fascinating statistics and numbers about the ecosystem.
• Biopoiesis and biogenesis are processes that help the biosphere evolve. Biogenesis is the process of life emerging from living matter, whereas biopoiesis is the process of life evolving from non-living matter.
• The biosphere is believed to include 8.7 million distinct species, according to scientists. Approximately 2.2 million people live beneath water, whereas 6.5 million live on land.
• The biosphere’s true depth has yet to be determined. Some of the fish are said to reside beneath the depths of 8,300 metres.
• Biosphere 1 is the natural biosphere of the Earth. However, certain man-made biospheres, such as Biosphere 2 and Biosphere 3, were constructed solely for scientific research.
• The biosphere’s biggest component is the hydrosphere. It takes up 71% of the Earth’s surface.
• From the surface of the Earth to the depths of the ocean, the biosphere is estimated to be 21,500 metres.
• The biosphere aids in the recycling of nutrients such as oxygen and nitrogen in order to keep life on Earth going.
• Food or raw materials should be provided. Because all living things require food to exist, the biosphere plays an essential role in supplying food to various animals and plants.
People’s activities and interactions with the environment or their habitats are critical to the biosphere’s survival and future. By raising or reducing oxygen or carbon dioxide in the atmosphere, for example, the biosphere and the lives of species may be harmed. Human activities such as forest fires, pollution, and other factors contribute to it.
Yangambi, in the Democratic Republic of Congo, was the site of the first biosphere. There are, however, 563 biosphere reserves across the world. Furthermore, scientists have discovered a new biosphere near the Ethiopian town of Yayu. They will also use such reserves for agricultural purposes.
The following are some examples of biosphere reserves:
1. Australia’s Gran Arenal
2. Spain’s Fuerteventura
3. UNESCO biosphere reserves
Biosphere 1 refers to the earth’s natural biosphere. However, human curiosity has led to the creation of biosphere2, an artificial biosphere. In Oracle, Arizona, Biosphere 2 is regarded as the human-made laboratory. The project’s primary goal was to investigate various aspects and gather useful information. It was created between 1991 and 1994. In terms of construction, it resembles a big greenhouse. Various groups of individuals attempted to live and work under the facilities.
Biosphere 2 was meant to be a 100-year expedition, but it collapsed after only four years. However, over the last four years, the five biomes have been dispersed across the biosphere, posing problems for scientists, who have been forced to abandon their research.
Furthermore, it is still available for research and excursions. You may simply take a tour of the region and learn about the many elements and factors that make up the biosphere.
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- The Link Between the Ecology of the Prokaryotic Rare Biosphere and Its Biotechnological Potential. Front Microbiol . 2020 Feb 19;11:231.
- Transnational corporations and the challenge of biosphere stewardship. Nat Ecol Evol . 2019 Oct;3(10):1396-1403.
- Lignocellulose deconstruction in the biosphere. Curr Opin Chem Biol . 2017 Dec;41:61-70.
- The deep continental subsurface: the dark biosphere. Int Microbiol . 2018 Jun;21(1-2):3-14.
- Vanadium in Biosphere and Its Role in Biological Processes. Biol Trace Elem Res . 2018 Nov;186(1):52-67.