Differences between DNA and RNA (RNA vs DNA)
○ Carbon #2 on the pentose is not “deoxygenated” (it has a hydroxyl group attached).
○ RNA is single stranded.
○ RNA contains uracil instead of thymine.
○ RNA can move through the nuclear pores and isn’t confined to the nucleus.
Types of RNA
RNA exists in 3 forms:
○ Delivers the DNA code for amino acids to the cytosol where the proteins are manufactured.
○ Has a short half-life in the cytosol, so soon after its transcription is over, the mRNA is degraded.
○ Many proteins can be transcribed in a single mRNA.
○ Combines with proteins to form ribosomes, the cellular complexes that direct the synthesis of proteins.
○ rRNA is synthesized in the nucleolus.
○ Collects amino acids in the cytosol, and transfers them to the ribosomes for incorporation into a protein.
mRNA → massive
rRNA → rampant
tRNA → tiny